Mary Whiton Calkins

Mary Whiton Calkins studied at Harvard, although she was never given approval for formal admission. She studied with some of the most eminent thinkers of the time, including ​William James and Hugo Munsterberg, and completed all of the requirements for a doctorate. Despite this, Harvard refused to grant her a degree on the grounds that she was a woman.

Regardless, Calkins went on to become the first female president of the American Psychological Association. During her career, she wrote over a hundred professional papers on psychology topics, developed the paired-association technique, and became known for her work in the area of self-psychology.

While Harvard may have refused to grant her the degree she rightfully earned, that didn’t stop Calkins from becoming an influential psychologist.

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